- Letter to the Editor
- Open Access
Osmolarity: A hidden factor in Nanotoxicology
© Moayyedi et al. 2016
- Received: 2 February 2016
- Accepted: 9 March 2016
- Published: 22 March 2016
In the field of drug delivery, long circulating nanocarriers in the blood have many advantages such as targeted drug delivery and sustained release. Based on our current knowledge, evaluation of the effect of long circulating nanocarriers in the blood stream on osmolarity of plasma has not been reported before. In this study, osmotic pressure developed by some commercially available nanocarriers was estimated based on Van't Hoff equation. It is noteworthy that theoretically, nanocarriers do not have any significant effect on osmolarity of plasma. However, it is worth being evaluated experimentally in order to be taken into account in future studies.
- Drug delivery
- Osmotic pressure
An osmosis phenomenon is the net movement of solvent (usually water) through a semipermeable membrane from a region of high water concentration (hypoosmolar solution) to a lower water concentration (hyperosmolar solution). Adding a solute to pure water decreases water concentration in the solution. In such conditons, water molecules can diffuse from a region of low solute concentration to one with a high solute concentration . The effect of diverse solutes (i.e., molecules or ions) on osmolarity is depended on the number of dissolved particles in a solution, and is not correlated to their mass. Consequently, in an equal mass ratio, macromolecules (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides) have much less influence on the osmolarity of a solution in comparison with their monomeric components. For example, a gram of a polysaccharide comprised of 1,000 glucose units and a milligram of glucose have the identical effect on osmolarity. In order to prevent of an enormous increase in osmolarity inside the storage cell (e.g., hepatocyte), the fuel is stored in the form of polysaccharide (i.e., starch or glycogen) rather than glucose or other simple sugars by the cells .
Similarly, increasing osmolarity of plasma leads to net reabsorption of fluid from interstitial fluid into the capillaries rather than net filtration. On the other hand, increasing osmolarity of plasma leads to antidiuretic hormone secretion. Osmolarity of plasma is approximately 300 mOsm/L. Change as small as 1 % in osmolarity of plasma leads to increasing antidiuretic hormone secretion significantly. This hormone decreases the excreted volume of fluid by the kidneys. Ultimately, Due to increased blood volume, arterial pressure increases [1, 3].
In the field of drug delivery, long circulating nanocarriers in the blood have many advantages such as targeted drug delivery and sustained release [4–6]. Until now, numerous studies have been performed in the Nanotoxicology [7, 8]. Nevertheless, evaluation of the effect of long circulating nanocarriers in the blood stream on osmolarity of plasma has not been reported before.
Estimation of osmotic pressure developed by some commercially available nanocarriers per 1 L of plasma
Osmotic pressure (mm Hg)
7.0 × 10−5
4.0 × 10−6
2.0 × 10−2
1.0 × 10−3
3.2 × 10−4
1.7 × 10−5
3.2 × 10−5
1.7 × 10−6
3.0 × 10−5
2.3 × 10−6
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Hall JE. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 12rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2010.Google Scholar
- Nelson DL, Lehninger AL, Cox MM. Lehninger principles of biochemistry. 5rd ed. London: Macmillan; 2008.Google Scholar
- Levy MN, Berne RM, Koeppen BM, Stanton BA. Berne & Levy physiology. 6rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2010.Google Scholar
- Bae YH, Park K. Targeted drug delivery to tumors: myths, reality and possibility. J Control Release. 2011;153:198.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Torchilin V. Tumor delivery of macromolecular drugs based on the EPR effect. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011;63:131–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cho K, Wang X, Nie S, Shin DM. Therapeutic nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1310–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sharifi S, Behzadi S, Laurent S, Forrest ML, Stroeve P, Mahmoudi M. Toxicity of nanomaterials. Chem Soc Rev. 2012;41:2323–43.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Li X, Liu W, Sun L, Aifantis KE, Yu B, Fan Y, et al. Effects of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials on their toxicity. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2015;103:2499–507.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar