Toxicity of nanomaterials; an undermined issue
© Mogharabi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 25 June 2014
Accepted: 3 August 2014
Published: 15 August 2014
Nanomaterials are employed in extensive variety of commercial products such as electronic components, cosmetics, food, sports equipment, biomedical applications, and medicine. With the increasing utilization of engineered nanomaterials, the potential exposure of human to nanoparticles is rapidly increasing. Nowadays when new nanomaterials with new applications are introduced, mostly good and positive effects are mentioned whereas possible hazards arising from nanosize of the compounds are undermined. Toxicology studies of nanomaterials demonstrate some adverse effects in some human organs such as central nerve system, immune system, and lung. There is lack of complete information about human toxicity and environmental waste of nanomaterials. We aimed to highlight current toxicological concerns of potentially useful nanomaterials which are now used in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences.
Some of clinically available nanoparticle containing drugs
Polyglutamate polymer dotted with insulin
Type I diabetes
Nanosized calcium phosphate
Iron oxide nanoparticles
Cell Therapeutics, Inc.
Using nanoparticles in medicine and drug delivery is growing rapidly while there are still non-resolved concerns about their risk of toxicity. It should not be forgotten that every material with smaller size can cross the cell membrane easier than materials with normal size. As a matter of fact, most of information about kinetics of materials come from tests of materials in the normal size and non-surprisingly there is a lack of data about kinetics of nanosized materials that has a major role in toxicity ,. Graphene is a good example of a new nanomaterial that has raised new toxicological concerns . Concerns on the use of nanomaterials also back to their waste in the environment. At the moment there is lack of information about pattern of accumulation of nanomaterials waste and their possible entrance into food chain. Here the facility of in-silico toxicology should come into help . Therefore, scientists need a databank of biological effects, toxicity, biokinetics, as well as structure and molecular size of nanomaterials to be able to predict their toxicity. In other words, current need is to estimate different physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials relevant to toxicity, environmental fate, and transport.
Authors contributed equally to the paper. Authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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