Development of a validated UPLC-qTOF-MS Method for the determination of curcuminoids and their pharmacokinetic study in mice
- Mahendra K Verma†2Email author,
- Ishtiyaq A Najar1,
- Manoj K Tikoo†1,
- Gurdarshan Singh†1,
- Devinder K Gupta†3,
- Rajneesh Anand†2,
- Ravi K Khajuria†2,
- Subhash C Sharma†1Email author and
- Rakesh K Johri†1Email author
© Verma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 20 October 2012
Accepted: 20 January 2013
Published: 29 January 2013
A specific and sensitive UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids. These Curcuminoids comprises of curcumin, a principal curcuminoid and other two namely, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin obtained from rhizomes of Curcuma longa an ancient Indian curry spice turmeric, family (Zingiberaceae).
These analytes were separated on a reverse phase C18 column by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 5% acetonitrile in water with 0.07% acetic acid (75:25 v/v), flow rate of 100 μL/min was maintained. The qTOF-MS was operated under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electro-spray ionization (ESI) technique with positive ion polarity. The major product ions in the positive mode for curcuminoids were at m/z 369.1066, 339.1023 and 309.0214 respectively. The recovery of the analytes from mouse plasma was optimized using solid phase extraction technique.
The total run time was 5 min and the peaks of the compounds, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin occurred at 2.06, 2.23 and 2.40 min respectively. The calibration curves of bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin were linear over the concentration range of 2–1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9951), 2–1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9970) and 2-1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9906) respectively.
Intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy in terms of % bias for curcumin was in between −7.95to +6.21, and −7.03 to + 6.34; for demethoxycurcumin was −6.72 to +6.34, and −7.86 to +6.74 and for bisdesmetoxycurcumin was −8.23 to +6.37 and −8.47 to +7.81. The lower limit of quantitation for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin was 2.0 ng/mL. Analytes were stable under various conditions (in autosampler, during freeze-thaw, at room temperature, and under deep-freeze conditions). This validated method was used during pharmacokinetic studies of curcumin in the mouse plasma.
A specific, accurate and precise UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin both individually and simultaneously was optimized.
Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) is a coloring agent, has been found to be a rich source of phenolic compounds, namely, curcuminoids (2-5%). C. longa consists of a mixture of three naturally occurring curcuminoids. Curcumin the principal curcuminoid (about 80%) and other two curcuminoids are demethoxycurcumin (about 12%) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (about 8%).
Curcuminoids are recognized for their broad spectrum biological activities and have been generally regarded as safe (GRAS) in foods or pharmaceuticals. Curcumin is widely used for coloring of foods like pickles and snacks.
Many pharmacological properties have been attributed to curcuminoids including anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, antioxidant and cholekinetic activities[3, 4] and anti-protease activity[5, 6]. In addition, apoptosis have been shown to induce in human cancer cells by the curcuminoids and act as a chemopreventive agents for major types of cancer, including the stomach, lung, breast, prostate, colon and duodenal cancers, as well as leukemias[8–12] and display neuroprotective effects. Curcumin has also been reported a more potent free radical scavenger than vitamin E.
It is also known for its potential use of curcumin in the treatment of infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also reported.
Quantification of the active metabolite, THC in plasma and urine by HPLC method has also been reported and simultaneous quantification of diferuloylmethane and its metabolites in biological matrices has been reported by LC/MS/MS.
Hence, due to the immense biological importance of curcumin and its analogues, there is a need for effective, rapid and more sensitive methods to monitor curcuminoids. Various HPLC methods are available in literature for determination of curcuminoids[19–29]. HPLC-MS methods also reported to provide quantitation of curcuminoids[30–32].
In recent times UPLC with qTof-MS is widely considered analytical technique for better quality data in terms of increased detection limits, and chromatographic resolution with greater sensitivity. This paper presents (i) a method for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids by UPLC–qTOF-MS, and (ii) a pharmacokinetic study of curcumin in mice.
Material and methods
Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin used as standards were isolated from the rhizomes of C. longa by the method already reported in literature. The isolated curcuminoids were identified on the basis of NMR and Mass spectral data. The purity of standards was >99%. All solvents/chemicals used were of HPLC grade and obtained from E-Merck, Mumbai, India. The HPLC grade water was obtained from a Water Purification System (Synergy UV, Millipore, USA).
A UPLC-qTOF-MS system (Synapt, Waters, USA, equipped with MassLynx acquisition software, version 4.1) was used. Experimental conditions were column, C-18 (50 × 2.1 mm); particle size, 1.7 μm; (Acquity, BEH); flow rate, 100 μL/min; mobile phase, acetonitrile: 5% acetonitrile in water with 0.07% acetic acid (75: 25 v/v), injection volume, 5 μL. The analyte infusion experiments were performed using an in-built syringe pump. A mass spectrometer with ESI interface was used for MS/MS analysis. ESI parameters were as follows: capillary voltage, 2.7 kV for positive mode; source temperature, 83°C; desolvation temperature, 200°C; cone gas flow, 50 L/h and desolvation gas flow, 550 L/h. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to monitor the transition of curcumin m/z 391.0864 [M+Na], 369.1066 (M+H) to 285.0912, demethoxycurcumin at 339.1023 (M+H) to 255.0848 and of bisdemethoxycurcumin at m/z 309.0968 [M+H] to 225.0790.
Preparation of reference, standard and quality control solutions
Reference solutions of curcumin (C) (stock I), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), (stock II) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) (stock III) were prepared by weighing 5 mg of each compound. The quantities were transferred to 5 mL volumetric flasks, dissolved and diluted suitably with HPLC grade methanol. All the reference solutions (1 mg/mL) were covered with aluminium foil and sealed with paraffin film to avoid photodegradation and loss due to evaporation. Stock I, stock II and stoke III were mixed together, and diluted suitably with methanol. A 50-uL of this solution was used to spike blank mouse plasma samples (450 uL) to achieve 8 calibration standards (CAL STD) containing curcuminoids combination. CAL STD-1: curcuminoids, 2 ng/mL; CAL STD-2: 5 ng/mL each; CAL STD-3: 10 ng/mL each; CAL STD-4: 50 ng/mL each; CAL STD-5: 100 ng/mL each; CAL STD-6: 200 ng/mL each; CAL STD-7: 500 ng/mL each; and CAL STD-8: 1000 ng/mL each. Three quality control (QC) standards (LQC: 2 ng/mL; MQC: 450 ng/mL; HQC 900 ng/mL each of curcuminoids) were prepared and used to spike blank mouse plasma.
Method validation procedures
The analytical method was validated to meet the acceptance criteria as per guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The specificity of the method was established by comparing blank plasma samples with those spiked with the analytes to find out interference from endogenous components. The CAL STD solutions were utilized for establishment of linearity and range (linear least-squares regression with a weighting index of 1/x). The precision and accuracy parameters were ascertained in LLOQ, LQC, MQC, and HQC samples (7 replicates each in 3 sets) on the same day and on 3 consecutive days. The intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy (% bias) of the method was determined from mean measured concentrations and nominal concentrations as follows: % bias = [(mean measured conc.−nominal conc.)/nominal conc.]×100. The intra-assay and inter-assay precision (% relative standard deviation or RSD) of the method was calculated from mean measured concentrations as follows: % RSD = (SD of mean measured conc./mean measured conc.)×100. The stability of analytes in plasma was investigated under following conditions: (a) 1 month storage at deep freeze (−80°C); (b) 3 consecutive freeze–thaw cycles from −20°C to room temperature; (c) 24 h storage at room temperature; and (d) short-term stability (of processed samples) at 10°C for 24 h in autosampler. After specified storage conditions, samples were processed and analyzed. The matrix effect was investigated by post extraction spike method. Peak area (A) of the analyte in spiked blank plasma with a known concentration (MQC) was compared with the corresponding peak area (B) obtained by direct injection of standard in the mobile phase. The ratio (A/B×100) is defined as the matrix effect.
The curcumin (C), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) were recovered simultaneously from plasma using solid phase extraction (SPE) technique involving semi-automated vacuum chamber and vacuum pump (Supelco, USA). The various steps involved in the recovery procedure were: (a) conditioning of SPE cartridge (C18, 3 mL capacity, 100 mg bed, Samprep-Ranbaxy, Mumbai, India) with 1.0mLmethanol, followed by 1.0 mL water, (b) loading of diluted (1:4, v/v) plasma samples (1.0 mL) onto cartridge and drying under positive pressure, and (c) samples were washed with 2 mL of water followed by elution with 2 mL of methanol. The eluants were carefully collected in 2.0 mL capacity glass vials for direct analysis in UPLC–qTOF-MS system.
Swiss mice (22–30 g) were obtained from the Animal House of this Institute, and kept in regulated environmental conditions (temperature: 25 ± 2°C, humidity: 60 ± 5%, 12 h dark/light cycle). Animals were fed on standard pelleted diet (Ashirwad Industries, Chandigarh, India) and water was provided ad libitum. Animal experiments were approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. Animals were fasted overnight before the experiment and segregated into different groups for the sample collections at different time intervals. All these animals were administered with curcumin (100 mg/kg, p.o.). Blood samples were collected in pre-heparinized glass tubes at different time intervals post dosing (0–24 hr). Blood samples were centrifuged (5000 rpm; 10 min at 20°C) to separate the plasma.
Concentration-time curves for Concentration–time curves were established for curcumin from the treated mice and used for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters such as peak plasma concentration (Cmax), peak time (Tmax), extent of absorption (AUC), half-life (t1/2), clearance (Cl), and volume of distribution (Vd) by a non-compartmental analysis using PK Solutions Version 2.0; Summit Research Services, USA.
The method was found to be specific: Extracted blank plasma when compared with plasma samples spiked with curcuminoids did not show any interference at the respective retention times of each analyte.
Linearity and range
The calibration curves of bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin were linear over the concentration range of 2–1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9951), 2–1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9970) and 2-1000 ng/mL (r2, 0.9906) respectively.
Accuracy and precision
Accuracy (% bias) data
Nominal conc. (ng/mL)
Precision (% RSD) data
Nominal conc. (ng/mL)
The accuracy and precision of the method were within the acceptable limits of ±15%.
Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ)
The LLOQ for curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were 2.0 ng/mL.
Recovery (ng) after storage (−80 °C)
888.974 ± 1.876
853.41 ± 1.451 (95.99%)
845 ±3.058 (96.68%)
Recovery (ng) after freeze thaw cycles
5.92 ± 0.141
888.974 ± 1.876
Recovery (ng) after storage at room temp.
5.92 ± 0.141
888.974 ± 1.876
Recovery (ng) after storage in auto sampler
5.92 ± 0.141
888.974 ± 1.876
The matrix effect (A/B×100) for Curcumin was 96.78% (% RSD: 3.14; n = 5), and for DMC it was 97.31% (% RSD: 4.05; n = 5) and for BDMC it was 96.13% (% RSD: 3.89; n=5) Percent RSD < 5 suggested that the method was free from matrix effect.
Pharmacokinetic parameters (curcumin)
AUC 0-∞ (ng*hr/ml)
C max (ng/ml)
T max (hr)
Half Life (hr.)
A method for the determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin by UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS has not been reported, prior to this investigation, in which curcuminoids have been quantified on the basis of their major fragment. The major product ions observed in the positive ion ESI spectra curcumin m/z 391.0864 [M+Na], 369.1066 (M+H) to 285.0912, demethoxycurcumin at 339.1023 (M+H) to 255.0848 and of bisdemethoxycurcumin at m/z 309.0214 [M+H]+ to the production 225.0790. The quantification of the analytes was achieved by using MRM which makes the proposed method most acceptable.
Previously reported HPLC-UV methods for the quantification and determination of curcuminoids have several disadvantages, such as unsatisfactory separation times (needs more analysis time), poor resolution and complicated solvent mixtures with gradient elution. These methods are not selective, rapid, so a time-consuming pretreatment of a sample, or complicate gradient elution is required.
We have developed a simple, reliable and an isocratic UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method which require only binary solvent system containing water and acetonitrile. This method has shown high degree of simplicity, accuracy, sensitivity, reproducibility and also provides short analysis time (5 min.). In the proposed method the linearity was in the range between 2 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL which makes the method most suitable for the trace quantification of analytes. This method can also be used for the quantification of individual curcuminoids for routine analysis.
The method was validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and stability of the analytes, and utilized for the determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxrcurcumin either individually or simultaneously in plasma (mice). After oral administration curcumin could be quantified only up to 24 h of sampling time. A pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma concentration-time data usually involves the maximum (peak) plasma drug concentrations (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration –time curve (AUC). The plasma drug concentration increases with the rate of absorption; therefore the most widely used general index of absorption is Cmax. AUC is another reliable measure for the extent of absorption. It is directly proportional to the total amount of unchanged drug that reaches systemic circulation.
A specific, accurate and precise UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin both individually and simultaneously was optimized. Pharmacokinetic study of curcumin was carried out by using this validated method.
Authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-IIIM, Jammu for providing necessary facility for the work.
- Inoue K, Nomura C, Ito S, Nagatsu A, Hino T, Oka H: Purification of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin by high- speed countercurrent chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 2008, 56: 9328-9336. 10.1021/jf801815n.View ArticlePubMed
- Lukita-Atmadja W, Ito Y, Baker GL, McCuskey RS: Effect of curcuminoids as anti-inflammatory agents on the hepatic microvascular response to endotoxin. Shock. 2002, 17: 399-403. 10.1097/00024382-200205000-00010.View ArticlePubMed
- Masuda T, Hidaka K, Shimohara A, Maekawa T, Takeda Y, Yamaguchi H: Chemical studies on antioxidant mechanism of curcuminoid: analysis of radical reaction products from curcumin. J Agric Food Chem. 1999, 47: 71-77. 10.1021/jf9805348.View ArticlePubMed
- Rasyid A, Rahman AR, Jaalam K, Lelo A: Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002, 11: 314-318. 10.1046/j.1440-6047.2002.00296.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Nishigaki I, Kuttan R, Oku H, Ashoori F, Abe H, Yagi K: Suppressive effect of curcumin on lipid peroxidation induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride or 60Co-irradiation. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 1992, 13: 23-29. 10.3164/jcbn.13.23.View Article
- Sui Z, Salto R, Li J, Craik C, De Montellano PRO: Inhibition of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases by curcumin and curcumin boron complexes. Bioorg Med Chem. 1993, 1: 415-422. 10.1016/S0968-0896(00)82152-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Choudhuri T, Pal S, Agwarwal ML, Das T, Sa G: Curcumin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through p53-dependent Bax induction. FEBS Lett. 2002, 512: 334-340. 10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02292-5.View ArticlePubMed
- Kelloff GJ, Crowell JA, Steele VE, Lubet RA, Malone WA, Boone CW, Kopelovich L, Hawk ET, Lieberman R, Lawrence JA, Ali I, Viner JL, Sigman CC: Progress in cancer chemoprevention: development of diet-derived chemopreventive agents. J Nutr. 2000, 130: 467S-471S.PubMed
- Shao ZM, Shen ZZ, Liu CH, Sartippour MR, Go VL, Heber D, Nguyen M: Curcumin exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2002, 98: 234-240. 10.1002/ijc.10183.View ArticlePubMed
- Duvoix A, Blasius R, Delhalle S, Schnekenburger M, Morceau F, Henry E, Dicato M, Diederich M: Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin. Cancer Lett. 2005, 223: 181-190. 10.1016/j.canlet.2004.09.041.View ArticlePubMed
- Kawamori T, Lubet R, Steele VE, Kelloff GJ, Kaskey RB, Rao CV, Reddy BS: Chemopreventive effect of curcumin, a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory agent, during the promotion/progression stages of colon cancer. Cancer Res. 1999, 59: 597-601.PubMed
- Kanai M, Imaizumi A, Otsuka Y, Sasaki H, Hashiguchi M, Tsujiko K, Matsumoto S, Ishiguro H, Chiba T: Dose-escalation and pharmacokinetic study of nanoparticle curcumin, a potential anticancer agent with improved bioavailability, in healthy human volunteers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012, 69: 65-70. 10.1007/s00280-011-1673-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Lee HS, Jung KK, Cho JY, Rhee MH, Hong S, Kwon M, Kim SH, Kang SY: Neuroprotective effect of curcumin is mainly mediated by blockade of microglial cell activation. Pharmazie. 2007, 62: 937-942.PubMed
- Zhao BL, Li XJ, He RG, Cheng SJ, Xin WJ: Scavenging effect of extracts of green tea and natural antioxidants on active oxygen radicals. Cell Biophys. 1989, 14: 175-185.View ArticlePubMed
- Ammon HP, Wahl MA: Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 1991, 57: 1-7. 10.1055/s-2006-960004.View ArticlePubMed
- Pan MH, Huang TM, Lin JK: Biotransformation of curcumin through reduction and glucuronidation in mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999, 27: 486-494.PubMed
- Heath DD, Pruitt MA, Brenner DE, Begum AN, Frautschy SA, Rock CL: Tetrahydrocurcumin in plasma and urine: Quantitation by high performance liquid Chromatography. J Chromatogr B, Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005, 824: 206-212. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.07.026.View Article
- Esatbeyoglu T, Huebbe P, Ernst IMA, Chin D, Wagner AE, Rimbach G: Curcumin—from molecule to biological function. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2012, 51: 5308-5332. 10.1002/anie.201107724.View Article
- Bos R, Windono T, Woerdenbag HJ, Boersma YL, Koulman A, Kayser O: HPLC-photodiode array detection analysis of curcuminoids in Curcuma species indigenous to Indonesia. Phytochem Anal. 2007, 18: 118-122. 10.1002/pca.959.View ArticlePubMed
- Jadhav BK, Mahadik KR, Paradkar AR: Development and validation of improved reversed phase-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bis-demethoxycurcumin. Chromatographia. 2007, 65: 483-488. 10.1365/s10337-006-0164-8.View Article
- Jayaprakasha GK, Rao LJM, Sakariah KK: Improve HPLC method for the determination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. J Agric Food Chem. 2002, 50: 3668-3672. 10.1021/jf025506a.View ArticlePubMed
- Khurana A, Ho CT: High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of curcuminoids and their photo-oxidative decomposition compound in C. longa L. J Liq Chromatogr. 1998, 11: 2295-2304.View Article
- Li R, Xiang C, Ye M, Li HF, Zhang X, Guo D: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of curcuminoids in herbal medicines derived from Curcuma species. Food Chem. 1890, 2011: 126-
- Naidu MM, Shyamala BN, Manjunatha JR, Sulochanamma G, Srinivas P: Simple HPLC method for resolution of curcuminoids with antioxidant potential. J Food Sci. 2009, 74: 312-318.View Article
- Scotter MJ: Synthesis and chemical characterisation of curcuminoid colouring principles for their potential use as HPLC standards for the determination of curcumin colour in foods. Food Sci Tech. 2009, 42: 1345-1351.
- Taylor SJ, McDowell IJ: Determination of the curcuminoid Pigments in turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val) by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographia. 1992, 34: 73-77. 10.1007/BF02290463.View Article
- Tonnesen HH, Karlsen J: High-performance liquid chromatography of curcumin and related compounds. J Chromatogr. 1983, 259: 367-371.View Article
- Wichitnithad W, Jongaroonngamsang N, Pummangura S, Rojsitthisak P: A simple isocratic HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of curcuminoids in commercial turmeric extracts. Phytochem Anal. 2009, 20: 314-319. 10.1002/pca.1129.View ArticlePubMed
- Xie Y, Jiang ZH, Zhou H, Cai X, Wong YF, Liu ZQ, Bian ZX, Xu HX, Liu L: Combinative method using HPLC quantitative and qualitative analysis for quality consistency assessment of a herbal medicinal preparation. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007, 43: 204-212. 10.1016/j.jpba.2006.07.008.View ArticlePubMed
- He XG, Lin LZ, Lian LZ, Lindenmaier M: Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometric analysis of curcuminoids and sesquiterpenoids in turmeric (Curcuma longa). J Chromatogr A. 1998, 818: 127-132. 10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00540-8.View Article
- Liu R, Zhang J, Liang M, Zhang W, Yan S, Lin M: Simultaneous analysis of eight bioactive compounds in Danning tablet by HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007, 43: 1007-1012. 10.1016/j.jpba.2006.09.031.View ArticlePubMed
- Jiang H, Timmermann BN, Gang DR: Use of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to identify diarylheptanoids in turmeric (C. longa L.) rhizome. J Chromatogr A. 2006, 1111: 21-31. 10.1016/j.chroma.2006.01.103.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.