Open Access

Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

  • Farzaneh Nabati1,
  • Faraz Mojab2,
  • Mehran Habibi-Rezaei3,
  • Kowsar Bagherzadeh1,
  • Massoud Amanlou1, 4 and
  • Behnam Yousefi5Email author
DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences201220:72

DOI: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-72

Received: 17 July 2012

Accepted: 17 July 2012

Published: 31 October 2012

Abstract

Background and purpose of the study

H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium.

Methods

137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined.

Results

37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration). Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum.

Conclusions

The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

Keywords

Urease inhibitor Iranian traditional medicinal plants Sambucus ebulus Rheum ribes Screening of natural products

Introduction

Ureases (urea amidohydrolases, EC (3.5.1.5) are a group of widespread enzymes in nature, classified as the most proficient enzymes (with proficiency more than 1014), stand as protagonist in biochemistry for several reasons. Urease was the first ureolytic enzyme obtained and named in the late nineteenth century, with landmark significance in enzymology as the first enzyme crystallized (in 1926 by Sumner) to approve the proteinous nature of the enzymes [1]. Also, as ascertained by Dixon et al. in 1975, urease was the first enzyme shown to possess nickel ions in its active site, essential for activity [2]. Since its substrate; urea is pervasively available in nature, urease was important to provide organisms with nitrogen in the form of ammonia for growth [3]. Despite the diversity in the molecular structures of urease, the amino acid sequences of the active sites are principally similar in all of the known them and consequence of this fact is the same catalytic mechanism. The active sites are always located in α subunits and contain the binuclear nickel centre, in which the Ni–Ni distances range from 3.5 to 3.7 Angstrom [4].

Urease as the most characteristic feature of Helicobacter pylori constitutes 5–10% of the bacteria’s proteins. H. pylori a microaerophilic, gram-negative spiral bacterium which was first detected in 1984 by Marshall et al, is one of the most common chronic bacterial pathogens in humans [5]. Approximately more than 50% of people in the world are infected with it, and its prevalence is significantly higher in developing countries in compare with the developed ones. H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to chronic gastritis, gastro duodenal ulcer and low grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Epidemiological data show that high H. pylori infection rate, result in the incidence of gastric cancer and adenocarcinoma [6, 7]. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, and the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach [8]. It has been also reported that ammonia and monochloramine, which is a reaction product of ammonia and hypochlorous acid, exhibit potent toxicity in gastric epithelium [9]. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that H. pylori lacking urease activity are incapable of causing infection in animal models. Thus, it is most likely that urease is essential for bacterial colonization and perhaps the pathogenesis of related disease in vivo.

World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized H. pylori as a class 1 carcinogen [10]. Fortunately, its eradication with antibiotics can result in ulcer healing, prevent peptic ulcer recurrence and reduce the prevalence of gastric cancer in high-risk populations. However, it is not always successful because of its resistance to one or more antibiotics and other factors such as poor patient compliance, undesirable side effects of the drugs and significant cost of combination therapy [11]. Wolle et. al. reported that approximately 20% of the patients undergoing antibiotics therapy would experience therapeutic failure [12]. In developing countries, since the application of antibiotics is still under a poor management as a whole, there is a growing need for finding new anti-H. pylori agents that can hopefully eradicate the invasion and presence of survived H. pylori strains to avoid relapse of gastric ulcer. Hence, a considerable variety of studies involving tests for medicinal plants showing antimicrobial activity and discrepant susceptibility test results are available due to variations in the methods and conditions used for its susceptibility testing.

One of the best sources of new substances to treat H. pylori is natural products and their derivatives [13]. Variety of techniques such as synthesizing [6], and also molecular modeling and virtual screening methods [14, 15] have been applied to find possible urease inhibitors. The biological activity of plant-derived substances may be considered as a source of new anti-H. pylori drugs come from different classes of compounds and are characterized by the diversity of their structures. Therefore, almost all traditional Iranian herbal medicines that are used as remedies and sold as medicines to manage different diseases were screened to discover possible plant-derived urease inhibitors.

Methods

Materials

Sodium nitroprusside (sodium pentacyanonitrosyloferrate III) and urease (EC 3.5.1.5) from Jack beans were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). All other chemicals were of analytical reagent grade from Merck. Deionized water was used in all experiments. Potassium phosphate buffer (100 mM), pH 7.6 was prepared in distilled water.

The studied plants were collected from local medicinal herb shops, Tehran, Iran (June 2010) and were identified by one of our authors of the presented article (F. Mojab). The authenticated samples were deposited in the Herbarium of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

Extract preparation

10 g of air-dried and powdered plant material was extracted in 10 ml, 50:50 methanol: water at room temperature for 24 hrs. The resulting liquid extract was filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. The dry extracts were stored at -20°C till used [16].

Determination of urease activity

All extracts were tested for urease inhibitory at concentration of 10 mg/ml by the modified spectrophotometric method developed by Berthelot reaction [17]. For herbal extracts that were proven to exert significant inhibition and also for positive controls, inhibitory assays were performed. The plant extracts were tested in a concentration range of 0 to 10 mg/ml. Hydroxyurea was used as standard inhibitor.

The solution assay mixture consisted of urea (30 mM) and (100 μl) crud extract with a total value of 950 μl. The reactions were initiated by the addition of 50 μl of urease enzyme solution in phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.6, 1 mg/ml). Urease activity was determined by measuring ammonia concentration after 15 minutes of enzymatic reaction. The ammonia was determined using 500 μl of solution A (contained 5.0 g phenol and 25 mg of sodium nitroprusside in 500 ml of distilled water) and 500 μl of solution B (contained of 2.5 g sodium hydroxide and 4.2 ml of sodium hypochlorite 5% in 500 ml of distillated water) at 37°C for 30 minutes. The absorbance was read at 625 nm. Activity of uninhibited urease was designated as the control activity of 100%.

Data processing

The extent of the enzymatic reaction was calculated based on the following equation:
I % = 1 T / C * 100 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F2008-2231-20-72/MediaObjects/40199_2012_Article_72_Equa_HTML.gif

Where I (%) is the inhibition of the enzyme, T (test) is the absorbance of the tested sample (plant extract or positive control in the solvent) in the presence of enzyme, C (control) is the absorbance of the solvent in the presence of enzyme. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error (SD) and the results were taken from at least three times.

Determination of IC50 values

IC50 values (concentration of test compounds that inhibits the hydrolysis of substrates by 50%) were determined by studying the extracts urease inhibitory activity at their different concentrations in comparison to their individual positive control employing spectrophotometric measurement. IC50 values were obtained from dose-response curves by linear regression, using Graphpad software, prism 5.

Results and discussion

Medicinal plants as an appropriate and renewable source of active chemical compounds can be used as templates to discover new lead compounds. Doxorubicin, vincristine, and taxol, are examples of these herbal compounds which are clinically applied. According to the literature, 50% of commercially presented medicines in 1985 was from herbal origins [18]. Gastrointestinal diseases, especially gastric, duodenal and peptic ulcer, arise from different factors, in particular microbial agent H. pylori. Common multi-drug therapies not only have side effects, but are also expensive. On the other hand, the probability of drug resistance occurrence and disease retrogression is quite concerning. Already reported studies have shown that herbal compounds have the ability to prevail this microbe. Among the studied herbal essences and extracts, many did not exceed the study level due to production limits, toxicity and impossibility of drug form preparation. Majority of the researches have focused on ways to inhibit the bacteria growth or it’s elimination from the culture, while a few has particularly concerned inhibition of urease enzyme which is responsible for the bacteria defense system against the stomach very acidic medium.

Specific inhibition or reduction of urease enzyme activity would result in an increased sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium and therefore it’s natural elimination by stomach acidic condition or the body immune system.

In the presented study, urease enzyme inhibition potency of 137 herbal extracts was investigated from which 37 extracts have shown inhibitory activity up to more than 70% in the concentration of 10 mg/ml (Table 1). Further examinations and IC50 determination revealed that Sambucus ebulus, Rheum ribes, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Myristica fragrans, Areca catechu, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus aurantifolia and Nicotiana tabacum extracts inhibit urease enzyme in concentrations less than 500 μg/ml. It should also be mentioned that C. zeylanicum, M. chamomilla and M. spicata are already used as gastrointestinal remedies and this research has proved that these herbs can inhibit urease activity and prevent gastric upsets. Names of the studied plants and the 37 final more active extracts are presented in Table 2. As it is shown, the most potent urease inhibitory was observed for S. ebulus and R. ribes with IC50 values less than 100 μg/ml.
Table 1

Urease inhibitory activity of plants extract at concentration of 10 mg/ml

 

Scientific name

Plant family

Common name in English

Common name in Persian

Part used in traditional

Inhibition (%)

1.

Abrus precatorius

Fabaceae

Paternoster Seed

Cheshm-e khorus

Seed

9.21 ± 0.04

2.

Acacia Senegal

Fabaceae

Gum Arabic

Samgh-e arabi

Gum

12.81± 0.09

3.

Acanthophyllum squarrosum

Asparagaceae

Soap Root

Chubak

Root

14.15 ± 0.02

4.

Alpinia officinarum

Zingiberaceae

Galangal

Khulanjan

Rhizome

41.75 ± 0.05

5.

Althaea officinalis

Malvaceae

Hollyhoch

Khatmi

Flower

20.94 ± 0.06

6.

Alyssum homolocarpum

Brassicaceae

Madword & Pepper Weed

Qodume

Seed

13.57± 0.12

7.

Amaranthus lividus

Amaranthaceae

Cock's Comb Seed

Tokhm-e tajkhorus

Seed

17.48 ± 0.11

8.

Anethum graveolins

Apiaceae

Dill Seed

Tokhm-e shevid

Seed

37.50 ± 0.03

9.

Apium graveolens

Apiaceae

Celery Seed

Tokhm-e karafs

Seed

2.43 ± 0.01

10.

Aquilaria sinensis

Thymelaeaceae

Agarwood

Udeqamari

Fruit

32.03 ± 0.08

11.

Arctium Lappa

Asteraceae

Burdock Root

Bâbââdam

Root

19.99 ± 0.08

12.

Areca catechu

Arecaceae

Betel Nuts

Fufel

Fruit

96.67 ± 0.01

13.

Artemisia absinthium

Asteraceae

Worm Wood

Afsantin

Herb

52.50 ± 0.06

14.

Artemisia dracunculus

Asteraceae

Tarragon

Tarkhon

Leaf

57.53 ± 0.03

15.

Asperugo procumbens

Boraginaceae

German Madwort

Bâdranjbuye

Herb

12.43 ± 0.02

16.

Astragalus arbusculinus

Fabaceae

Sarcocola

Anzarut

Gum

17.68 ± 0.06

17.

Astragalus gossypinus

Fabaceae

Gum Tragacanth

Katirâ

Gum

1.33 ± 0.02

18.

Bambusa vulgaris

Poaceae

Golden Bamboo

Tabâshir sadaf

Secretions

12.81 ± 0.04

19.

Brassica nigra

Brassicaceae

Mustard

Khardel

Seed

27.63 ± 0.01

20.

Calendula officinalis

Asteraceae

Marigold

Hamishe bahar

Flower

0.16 ± 0.06

21.

Calendula sp.

Asteraceae

Marigold

Hamishe bahar

Flower

8.21 ± 0.07

22.

Camellia sinensis

Theaceae

Green Tea

Chây-e sabz

Leaf

89.40 ± 0.02

23.

Camellia sinensis

Theaceae

Green Tea

Châyeparsefid

Twig

90.45 ± 0.01

24.

Cannabis sativa

Cannabaceae

Hemp Seed

Shâhdane

Seed

9.71 ± 0.02

25.

Capsicum annuum

Solanaceae

Red Pepper

Felfel-e qermez

Fruit

99.01 ± 0.01

26.

Carthamus tinctorius

Asteraceae

Saf

Golrang

Flower

50.78 ± 0.04

27.

Cassia angustifolia

Fabaceae

Senna

Sena

Leaf

3.29 ± 0.03

28.

Celosia cristata

Amaranthaceae

Cockscomb

Gol-e halva

Flower

82.55 ± 0.03

29.

Centaurea sp.

Asteraceae

Centaurea

Gol-e gandom

Flower

70.33 ± 0.02

30.

Chenopodium botrys

Amaranthaceae

Lamb's Quarter

Dermane-e torki

Herb

15.13 ± 0.04

31.

Cichorium intybus

Asteraceae

Chicory

Kâsni

Herb

40.55 ± 0.04

32.

Cinchona officinalis

Rubiaceae

Cinchona

Gne gne

Bark

67.03 ± 0.02

33.

Cinnamomum camphora

Lauraceae

Camphre

Kâfur

Camphor

10.14 ± 0.08

34.

Cinnamomum cassia

Lauraceae

Cassia

Salikhe

Bark

91.19 ± 0.02

35.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum

Lauraceae

Cinnamon

Darchin

Bark

84.22 ± 0.05

36.

Citrus aurantifolia

Rutaceae

Limu Fruit

Limu ammâni

Fruit

99.02 ± 0.02

37.

Citrus aurantium

Rutaceae

Bitter Orange Peel

Khalâl-e nârenj

Rind

1.43 ± 0.05

38.

Citrus bigardia

Rutaceae

Orange

Gol-e nârenj

Twig

24.31 ± 0.03

39.

Colchicum macrophyllum

Colchicaceae

Colchicum Corms

Suranjan

Corm

9.44 ± 0.08

40.

Commiphora molmol

Burseraceae

Myrrh

Morr-e Makki

Gum

8.22 ± 0.04

41.

Crataegus microphylla

Rosaceae

Hawthorn

Sorkhe valik

Flower

82.19 ± 0.03

42.

Curcuma zedoaria

Zingiberaceae

Zedoary

Zorombad

Seed

4.70 ± 0.06

43.

Cuscuta epithymum

Convolvulaceae

Hellweed

Aftimun

Herb

9.66 ± 0.01

44.

Cymbopogon

Poaceae

Lemongrass

Putar

Root

14.02 ± 0.03

45.

Descureania

Brassicaceae

Flixweed Seed

Khakshir

Seed

21.81 ± 0.01

46.

Diplotaenia damavendica

Apiaceae

Diplotaenia

Gozal

Seed

12.59 ± 0.06

47.

Doronicum bracteatum

Asteraceae

Doronicum

Darunj-e aqrabi

Herb

10.73 ± 0.01

48.

Dracaena cinnabari

Asparagaceae

Dragon Blood

Khone siyavosh

Gum

49.49 ± 0.13

49.

Dracocephalum

Lamiaceae

Moldavian Balm

Badrashbi

Twig

3.95 ± 0.01

50.

Echinophora platyloba

Apiaceae

Echinophora

Khosharize

Herb

17.48 ± 0.01

51.

Echium amoenum

Boraginaceae

Ox tongue Flower

Gol-e gâvzabân

Flower

31.66 ± 0.02

52.

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Elaeagnaceae

Oleaster

Senjed

Fruit

4.67 ± 0.14

53.

Elaeagnus angustifolia

Elaeagnaceae

Oleaster

Gol-e senjed

Flower

27.45 ± 0.01

54.

Elettaria cardamomum

Zingiberaceae

Cardamon

Hel sabz

Fruit

13.16 ± 0.04

55.

Elletaria cardamomum

Zingiberaceae

Cardamon

Hel sefid

Fruit

6.80 ± 0.07

56.

Elletaria cardamomum

Zingiberaceae

Cardamon

Hel siyah

Fruit

5.78 ± 0.071

57.

Equisetum arvense

Equisetaceae

Horse Tail

Dom-e asb

Stem

52.35 ± 0.05

58.

Eruca sativa

Brassicaceae

Rocket

Tokhm-e mandâb

Seed

13.28 ± 0.05

59.

Eucalyptus sp.

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus

Okaliptus

Leaf

47.92 ± 0.01

60.

Euphorbia sp.

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbia

Gav kosh

Herb

68.94 ± 0.03

61.

Ferula assa-foetida

Umbelliferae

Assa-Foetid

Anqoze

Gum

34.07 ± 0.04

62.

Helicteres isora

Malvaceae

Screw Tree Pod

Bahmanpich

Fruit

8.18 ± 0.02

63.

Heracleum persicum

Apiaceae

Cow Parsnip Friut

Golpar

Fruit

10.27 ± 0.02

64.

Hibiscus gossypifolius

Malvaceae

Rose Mallow

Chay-e Makki

Herb

96.28 ± 0.02

65.

Humulus lupulus

Cannabaceae

Hops

Râzak

Twig

54.85 ± 0.02

66.

Hypericum perforatum

Hypericaceae

St.John's Wort

Alaf-e chay

Herb

97.99 ± 0.02

67.

Juglans regia

Juglandaceae

Walnut Shell

Pust-e vasat-e gerdo

Septum

93.62 ± 0.01

68.

Juglans regia

Juglandaceae

Walnut Shell

Pust-e gerdo

Rind

1.27 ± 0.06

69.

Juniperus Sabina

Cupressaceae

Sabine

Abhal

Fruit

19.63 ± 0.01

70.

Lactuca sativa

Asteraceae

Lettuce

Tokhm-e Kâhu

Seed

2.93 ± 0.04

71.

Lawsonia inermis

Lythraceae

Henna

Hana

Leaf

54.00 ± 0.06

72.

Levisticum officinalis

Apiaceae

Lovage

Anjadân romi

Seed

10.00 ± 0.06

73.

Linum usitatissimum

Linaceae

Lineseed

Tokhm-e katan

Seed

2.71 ± 0.18

74.

Malabaila secacule

Apiaceae

Parsnip

Dogho

Root

18.18 ± 0.04

75.

Malva sylvestris

Malvaceae

Common Mallow

Gol-e panirak

Flower

14.15 ± 0.05

76.

Matricaria chamomilla

Asteraceae

Chamomile

Bâbon-e shirazi

Herb

87.21 ± 0.01

77.

Melissa officinalis

Lamiaceae

Balm

Barangbu

Herb

46.22 ± 0.05

78.

Mentha spicata

Lamiaceae

Mint

NaAna

Leaf

93.89 ± 0.01

79.

Myristica fragrans

Myristicaceae

Nutmeg

Joz-e buya

Fruit

78.19 ± 0.01

80.

Myrtus communis

Myrtaceae

Myrtle

Murd

Leaf

72.99 ± 0.01

81.

Nasturdium officinalis

Brassicaceae

Watercress

Boolâgoti

Leaf

74.00 ± 0.03

82.

Nerium Oleander

Apocynaceae

Nerium

Gol-e kharzahre

Flower

84.62 ± 0.01

83.

Nicotiana Tabacum

Solanaceae

Tobacco

Tutun

Leaf

52.77 ± 0.03

84.

Nicotiana tabacum

Solanaceae

Tobacco

Tutun

Stem

75.26 ± 0.05

85.

Nymphaea alba

Nymphaeaceae

White Lotus

Gol-e nilofar

Flower

97.86 ± 0.01

86.

Ocimum basilicum

Lamiaceae

Basil

Reyhan-e banafsh

Leaf

19.61 ± 0.05

87.

Ocimum basilicum

Lamiaceae

Basil

Reyhan-e sabz

Leaf

0.41 ± 0.01

88.

Oenothera biennis

Onagraceae

Evening Star

Gol-e maghrebi

Flower

3.95 ± 0.04

89.

Olea europea

Oleaceae

Olive Leaf

Barg-e zyton

Leaf

72.30 ± 0.01

90.

Orchis latifolia

Orchidaceae

Oriental Salp

SaAlab-e panjei

Root

18.90 ± 0.02

91.

Orchis mascula

Orchidaceae

Male Orchis

SaAlab-e qolvei

Root

3.16 ± 0.04

92.

Papaver Rhoeas

Papaveraceae

Corn Poppy

Pust-e shaghayegh

Rind

27.25 ± 0.12

93.

Papaver Rhoeas

Papaveraceae

Corn Poppy

Gol-e shaghayegh

Flower

97.50 ± 0.01

94.

Papaver somniferum

Papaveraceae

Opium Poppy

Khashkhash

Seed

4.79 ± 0.03

95.

Papaver somniferum

Papaveraceae

Opium Poppy

Khashkhash

Fruit

35.95 ± 0.02

96.

Passiflora caerulea

Passifloraceae

Passion Flower

Gol-e sâAty

Flower

46.90 ± 0.008

97.

Pelargonium graveolens

Geraniaceae

Geranium

Barg-e atr

Leaf

92.19 ± 0.01

98.

Pelargonium graveolens

Geraniaceae

Rose Pelargonium

Gol-e atr

Flower

96.87 ± 0.02

99.

Pterocarpus rubra

Fabaceae

Mukwa

Sandal-e sorkh

Bark

91.75 ± 0.01

100.

Petroselinum hortense

Apiaceae

Parsley Seed

Tokhm-e jafari

Seed

50.35 ± 0.03

101.

Pistachio lentiscus

Anacardiaceae

Lentisk Pistache

Mastaki

Gum

92.37 ± 0.01

102.

Pistacia vera

Anacardiaceae

Pistachio Nut Shell

Pust-e peste

Rind

97.71 ± 0.01

103.

Plantago major

Plantaginaceae

Great Plantain

Bârhang

Seed

4.69 ± 0.11

104.

Polyporus officinalis

Fomitopsidaceae

White Agaric

Ghariqun

Fungi

19.97 ± 0.06

105.

Portulaca oleracea

Portulacaceae

Common Purslane Seed

Tokhm-e khorfe

Seed

7.19 ± 0.03

106.

Prunus persica

Rosaceae

Peach

Barge-e holo

Fruit

9.47 ± 0.11

107.

Punica granatum

Lythraceae

Pomegranate Flower

Golnar

Flower

99.90 ± 0.01

108.

Punica granatum

Lythraceae

Pomegranate

Golnar

Rind

99.90 ± 0.01

109.

Quercus infectoria

Fagaceae

Oak Gall

Qolqaf

Gall

53.97 ± 0.02

110.

Quercus infectoria

Fagaceae

Oak Fruit Hull

Jaft

Rind

98.84 ± 0.02

111.

Rheum ribes

Polygonaceae

Rhubarb

Rivâs

Root

98.93 ± 0.01

112.

Rosa centifolia

Rosaceae

Damask Rose

Gol-e sorkh

Flower

97.51 ± 0.01

113.

Rosa foetida

Rosaceae

Rosa Lutea

Gol-e zard

Flower

89.19 ± 0.023

114.

Rosmarinus angustifolia

Lamiaceae

Pine Rosemary

Rozmary-e aklilaljabal

Leaf

22.51 ± 0.02

115.

Rubia tinctorium

Rubiaceae

Madder Root

Ronas

Root

37.31 ± 0.02

116.

Ruta graveolens

Rutaceae

Rue

Sodab

Leaf

27.91 ± 0.04

117.

Saccharum officinarum

Poaceae

Sugar Cane

Shekar-e sorkh

Mann

35.04 ± 0.06

118.

Salix aegyptiaca

Salicaceae

Aegyption Willow

Bidmeshk

Flower

17.05 ± 0.02

119.

Salix sp.

Salicaceae

Whitewillow

Pust-e bid

Bark

38.10 ± 0.01

120.

Salvia hydrangea

Lamiaceae

Mountain Sage

Gol-e arune

Flower

91.09 ± 0.01

121.

Salvia macrosiphon

Lamiaceae

Willd Sage Seeds

Thokhm-e marv

Seed

2.86 ± 0.04

122.

Sambucus ebulus

Adoxaceae

Dwarf Elder

Tarâsit

Fruit

99.70 ± 0.01

123.

Santalum album

Santalaceae

Sandalwood

Sandal-e sefid

Bark

58.69 ± 0.02

124.

Satureja hortensis

Lamiaceae

Savory Seed

Tokhm-e marze

Seed

35.77 ± 0.04

125.

Scrophularia striata

Scrophulariaceae

Striata Figwort

Mokhallace

Stem& Flower

16.47 ± 0.05

126.

Sinapis alba

Brassicaceae

White Mustard

Khardal-e sefid

Seed

39.77 ± 0.06

127.

Spinacia oleracea.

Amaranthaceae

Spinach Seed

Tokhm-e esfenaj

Seed

19.76 ± 0.04

128.

Taraxacum sp.

Asteraceae

Dandelion

Ghasedak

Flower

14.83 ± 0.01

129.

Thymus kotschyanus

Lamiaceae

Kotschyam Thyme

Avishan

Herb

17.94 ± 0.01

130.

Tilia platyphyllos

Malvaceae

Linden

Zirfun

Leaf & Flower

25.79 ± 0.01

131

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Fabaceae

Fenugreek Seed

Tokhm-e shanbalile

Seed

44.02 ± 0.02

132.

Triticum sativum

Poaceae

Wheat

Sabos-e ghandom

Husk

16.14 ± 0.04

133.

Tussilago farfara

Asteraceae

Colt′s-foot

Pakhari

Herb

69.08 ± 0.01

134.

Veratrum album

Melanthiaceae

White Hellebore

Kharbogh

Leaf

96.85 ± 0.06

135.

Verbascum georgicum

Scrophulariaceae

Mullein

Dom-e gav

Leaf

30.40 ± 0.03

336.

Verbascum sp.

Scrophulariaceae

Mullein

Marg-e mâhi

Fruit

0.82 ± 0.05

137.

Ziziphus vulgaris

Rhamnaceae

Jujube

Annâb

Fruit

26.34 ± 0.01

138.

Hydroxyurea

-------------

------------

----------

Reference compound

100 ± 0.01

Table 2

IC 50 and medicinal uses of most active plants

 

Scientific name

Effects & medicinal uses

IC50(μg/ml)

Std. Error log IC50

1.

A. catechu

Anthelmintic, gastric tonic

216

0.01

2.

C. cristata

Styptic, depurative, sedative, constipating, antibacterial, febrifuge,

6175

0.68

3.

C. annuum

Anti flatulence, gout, gastric tonic, paralysis

751

0.14

4.

C. aurantifolia

Appetitive, anti-flatulence, analgesic

432

0.06

5.

C. cassia

Gastric tonic, anti-spasmodic, anti-flatulence

867

0.05

6.

C. microphylla

Anti-flatulence, gastric tonic

665

0.14

7.

C. sinensis

Anti-bacterial, anti diarrhea, diuretic, astringent, reduce cholesterol

579

0.04

8.

C. zeylanicum

Gastric tonic, anti-flatulence, ‘anti-spasmodic

361

0.02

9.

C. sinensis

Anti-diarrhea, diuretic, astringent, anti-bacterial, reduce cholesterol

1314

0.04

10.

Cetaurea sp.

Anti-inflammatory, astringent, emmenagogue, sedative

5152

0.05

11.

H. gossypifolius

Analgesic, anti-tussive, demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, highly emollient, slightly laxative and odontalgic, anti-inflammations and laryngitis,

819

0.01

12.

H. perforatum

Astringent, analgesic, anti-inflammator, anti-anxiety aphrodisiac

3509

0.10

13.

J. regia

Anti-inflammatory, astringent, anti-spasmodic

1271

0.08

14.

M. chamomilla

Anti-inflammation, appetitive, and aids digestion and sleep, acts as a diuretic and nerve tonic.

3188

0.02

15.

M. fragrans

Anti-flatulence appetitive ‘anti-spasmodic’ antiseptic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory

215

0.15

16.

M. spicata

Analgesic, Anti-spasmodic, anti-flatulence

7822

0.17

17.

M. communis

Antiseptic, disinfectant, expectorant, deodorizer

170

0.04

18.

N. officinale

Diuretic, expectorant, purgative, hypoglycemic, odontalgic, stimulant, tonic and stomachic

2055

0.19

19.

N. alba

Astringent, antiseptic, anesthetic, aphrodisiac, sedative, used for gastrointestinal disorders and jaundice

820

0.19

20.

N. Oleander

Dermatitis, abscesses, eczema, psoriasis, sores, warts, corns, ringworm, scabies, herpes, skin cancer, asthma, dysmenorrheal, epilepsy, malaria,

9877

0.26

21.

N. tabacum

Anti-spasmodic, diuretic, sedative, sialagogue

473

0.15

22.

O. europea

Hypotensive, diuretic, hypoglycemic

2857

0.06

23.

P. granatum(Rind)

Hypoglycemic, anti-cancer, anthelmintic

1484

0.10

24.

P. granatum (Flower)

Hypoglycemic, anti-cancer, anthelmintic

1331

0.11

25.

P. graveolens

Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aromatherapy, astringent, anti- cancer, sedative

976

0.03

26.

P. graveolens

Analgesic, anti-Bacterial, anti-Depressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diuretic, insect repellent, refreshing, relaxing, sedative, styptic, tonic

1242

0.14

27.

P. lentiscus

Antibacterial

121

0.03

28.

P. Rhoeas

Anodyne, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant, hypnotic, sedative, tonic

5636

0.04

29.

P. rubra

Astringent, tonic

930

0.06

30.

P. vera

Aphrodisiac, anti-anxiety

4687

0.12

31.

Q. infectoria

Gingivitis, infectoria, anti-diabetic, anti-tremorine, local anesthetic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal.

1214

0.12

32.

R. centifolia

Anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, depurative, laxative, analgesic, appetitive

544

0.07

33.

R. foetida

Heart diseases, digestive, skin diseases, muscular pains, anti-parasite

2441

0.19

34.

R. ribes

Appetitive, astringent, anti bacteria, anti depressive and used to treat diabetes, hemorrhoids, ulcer, diarrhea

92

0.06

35.

S. hydrangea

anti-flatulence, astringent, anti-spasmodic

2960

0.11

36.

S. ebulus

Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidative

57

0.05

37.

V. album

Analgesic, anthelmintic, cathartic, emetic, expectorant, hypnotic

1037

0.07

38.

hydroxyurea

 

37

0.02

S. ebulus (Figure 1) is a native perennial herb of the Adoxaceae family [19]. It has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of inflammatory reactions, such as hemorrhoid, bites and sore-throat. In addition, S. ebulus has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-oxidative activities. Ebulitin, ebulin 1, flavonoid, anthocyanin and other components have been isolated from S. ebulus and identified as active ingredients of biological and pharmacological activities [20]. The anti-H. pylori effect of the S. ebulus extract was observed by using the agar dilution method [13].
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F2008-2231-20-72/MediaObjects/40199_2012_Article_72_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Figure 1

Sambucus ebulus in flowering stage[19].

R. ribes (Figure 2) is a hardy perennial, cultivated in some temperate countries for its edible red leaf stalks [21]. It is used to treat diabetes, hemorrhoids, ulcer, diarrhea, and expectorant activity reported. The efficacy and safety of a hydroalcohlic extract of R. ribes in treatment of mild to moderate major depression disorder has been investigated and the observations show some anti depressive effects. The methanolic extract of R. ribes have demonstrated anti-ulcer activity comparable with standard drugs cimetidine [22].
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F2008-2231-20-72/MediaObjects/40199_2012_Article_72_Fig2_HTML.jpg
Figure 2

Rheum ribes leaf[21].

According to strong inhibitory activity of the herbs presented in Table 2, simultaneous application of theses herbs and the medicines prescribed in gastrointestinal disease therapies would fasten the treatment. Additionally, isolation of active compounds and further investigation of each isolated compound against urease activity would lead to new chemical structures which may have the potency to inhibit urease activity.

Declarations

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Fereshteh Keyghobadi for her cooperation in the practical herbal testes. The financial supports of the Research Council of the Tehran University of Medical Science, University of Tehran and Iran National Science Foundation (INSF) are gratefully acknowledged.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
(2)
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
(3)
School of Biology, College of Science, University of Tehran
(4)
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
(5)
School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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© Nabati et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​2.​0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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