Extensive research has been made for the delivery of active drugs through buccal, vaginal and rectal cavity. The mucosa offers excellent opportunities to deliver active drugs both locally and systemically. Over the last decade considerable progress in research towards the development of buccal, vaginal and rectal drug delivery for various diseases have been made.
Cancer is a disease involving all organs, races, ages and sex of the humans. Among all types of cancer, Oropharyngeal cancer, colorectal cancer contributes to world most burden and cervical cancer accounts for little extent. Oropharyngeal cancer develops in the part of the throat just behind the mouth called the oropharynx. Oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, soft palate, tonsils, tonsillar pillars and back wall of the throat. Cervical cancer involving the cervix that is narrow and lower part of uterus. About 90% of Oropharyngeal and cervical cancers are squamous cells carcinoma that begins in the epithelial lining in mouth and vagina. Whereas in colorectal cancer columnar cells are affected. Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the most common therapies for treating cancer.
In chemotherapy, most of the anticancer drugs are parenterally administered attributable to poor oral bioavailability; this can be due to either poor absorption or significant first pass metabolism. However, limitation of parental are need to be sterile, time consuming, pain on administration and as also studies reported, approximately 90% of cancer patients prefer oral administration than intravenous administration[3, 4].
5-FU is the drug of choice in oropharyngeal caner, colorectal cancer, stomach cancer and cervical cancer. Chemically, 5-FU is a dipodic acid and highly polar in nature with pka values of 8.0 and 13.0[6, 7]. After oral administration, 5-FU is poorly absorbed with erratic variation in bioavailability ranging between 0 to 80%. 5-FU after parenteral administration it is rapidly eliminated with apparent terminal half life of approximately 8-20 min[8, 9]. On intravenous administration 5-FU produces severe systemic toxic effects including gastrointestinal, hematological, neural, cardiac and dermatological origin. These problems make 5-FU suitable candidate for Transbuccal/vaginal and rectal delivery.
Polymeric drug delivery systems are mainly designed for the efficient delivery of active drug. Among various polymeric drug delivery systems, interpolyelectrolyte complexes are most new, efficient form of polymeric carriers for novel drug delivery systems[11–14]. Chitosan polycarbophil IPEC has established its potential in drug delivery and have been most efficient form of IPEC compared to other complexes[15–17].
Most publications on 5-FU focused only on single drug delivery system like buccal gels, cervical patches, colorectal drug delivery. Hardly any articles reported on permeation studies and histological effects of 5-FU. Literature review revealed that there is no single drug delivery system available that can be given either through buccal, vaginal or rectal route. The prime goal has to design 5-FU multipurpose tablets with greater efficacy, potency, adoptability to need, minimal toxic effects and better patient compliance than the established marketed product.