Cost-effectiveness of adding-on new antiepileptic drugs to conventional regimens in controlling intractable seizures in children
© Gharibnaseri et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 16 May 2012
Accepted: 17 May 2012
Published: 30 August 2012
Background and purpose of the study
Intractable seizures are a subgroup of epileptic disorders challenging the physicians’ skills to become controlled. Showing resistance towards common pharmacotherapy, they demand newer antiepileptic drugs acquired at higher costs. 0.06% of children around the world are estimated to suffer from epilepsy and its consequences. The aim of the present study has been to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of intractable seizures in children.
Clinical and cost data were collected from medical and cost records preserved at a neurologist office and a referral pharmacy respectively. Based on the new AED which are accessible in Iran, regimens were categorized into eight groups. The first group consisting of conventional AEDs was considered as comparator and the effectiveness of other groups was compared with it. Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio (ICER) of adding-on each new antiepileptic drug was calculated in terms of Rials per consequence (Rls/consq) and compared with each other. Furthermore ICER of the regimens was compared with the GDP per capita (Gross Domestic Product) of the year (2010).
the ICER of the adding-on regimens range from negative values for Gabapentin, Levetiracetam and Zonisamide to low values for Lamotrigine (~ 6.4 million Rials/consequence [mil Rls/consq]) and Oxcarbazepine (~7.7 mil Rls/consq) and followed by high values for Topiramate (~21 mil Rls/consq) and Vigabatrin (~43.7 mil Rls/consq) considering the three months of remaining on regimen. By increasing the limit of remaining time to six months, the previously mentioned regimens persist on negative values. However Oxcarbazepine (~28.7 mil Rls/consq) and Lamotrigine (~13.8 mil Rls/consq) show a steep increase. Topiramate (~23.6 mil Rls/consq) displays a less change. Opposite to other regimens, the ICER value of Vigabatrin (~17.26 mil Rls/consq) has shown an important increase.
Adding-on new antiepileptics to conventional regimens are cost-effective and justified considering the GDP per capita.
KeywordsCost-effectiveness New antiepiletics Intractable seizures Children Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
Epilepsy is defined as a neurological disorder of brain portrayed by persisting predisposition to develop epileptic seizures . A proportion of 6 over 1,000 children around the world are estimated to suffer from epilepsy and its psychological, social and intellectual development consequences . Known as one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, epilepsy has several treatment options. However pharmacotherapy remains the mainstay . Since 1993 a high increase in emerging antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been observed . The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system of World Health Organization (WHO) collaborating center identifies 45 medicinal substances used in the treatment of epilepsy. Among which 13 are approved and prescribed in Iran. A common style of classifying AEDs is based on the year of introduction to the market. In this perspective, AEDs fall into two categories. Conventional AEDs including Carbamazepine, Ethosuximide, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Primidone and Valproate and the newer AEDs including Gabapentin, Levetiracetam, Lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Topiramate, Vigabatrin, Zonisamide. It should be noticed that financial supports are devoted to pharmaceuticals comprised in essential drugs list of Iran , resulting in the high prescription of them . While the first generation of AEDs prescribed as monotherapy shows promising results in almost 70% of patients with epilepsy, polytherapy or adding-on newer AEDs is demanded by the rest of the epileptic patients whom are believed to meet intractable seizures .
In general, selecting an AED is performed on the basis of many factors including relative efficacy, drug-drug interactions, tolerability and cost . The acquisition costs of newer AEDs are generally higher than the older; nevertheless there superiority in controlling seizures has to be established. Dealing with restricted budget, clinicians and decision-makers are interested in Pharmacoeconomics studies, which measure and balance costs and clinical outcomes of alternative medications. In spite of this, there is a tragic lack of literature on this issue in Iran; however a few of them that have been published in recent years could provide valuable information for decision making . Furthermore, owing to the pharmacogenetics effect and the diversity of genotypes, applying effectiveness data across different countries is difficult .
The aim of this study was to compare cost-effectiveness of newer AEDs being added to conventional regimens in treating intractable seizures in children.
Regarding the fact that either the inability of a regimen in controlling seizures or the inappropriate safety profile are the main reasons of switching the regimen by the clinical specialist, thus remaining on a regimen has been viewed as an acceptable indicator of effectiveness and safety for regimens. Receiving approval by the clinician, remaining on a regimen for three months and more was regarded as effectiveness endpoint (desired consequence).
The final step was comparing the ICER of each new AED as add-on therapy with the GDP per capita of Iran, as a measure for assessing the cost-effectiveness of different regimens.
It should be noted that all costs are reported as Rials (Rls) (1 United States of America’ Dollar (USD) ~ 10,000 Rls; 1 Euro ~ 15,000 Rls) in year 2010.
Sensitivity analysis was performed at three cost levels (medium, average and maximum) and the model was rerun with an effectiveness endpoint of six months.
Distribution of patients with intractable seizures
% of total
ICERs regarding at least 3 months of maintenance
Cost-effectiveness comparison of newer AEDs in three months at average prices
ICER (Rials per consequence)
conventional AEDs+ Gabapentin
conventional AEDs+ Lamotrigine
conventional AEDs+ Levetiracetam
conventional AEDs+ Oxcarbazepine
conventional AEDs+ Topiramate
conventional AEDs+ Vigabatrin
conventional AEDs+ Zonisamide
ICERs regarding the overall effect of adding-on new AEDs
Cost-effectiveness comparison of adding-on new AEDs in three and six months at average prices
Comparison with GDP per capita
By the limit time of six months, Gabapentin, Levetiracetam and Zonisamide still show negative values. Oxcarbazepine (ICER ~ 28.7 mil Rls/consq) turns out to exhibit dramatic changes in the cost-effectiveness due to striking decrease in effectiveness, followed by Topiramate (ICER ~ 23.6 mil Rls/consq). The increase for Lamotrigine (ICER ~ 13.8 mil Rls/consq) has been less considerable. Opposite to the previous regimens Vigabatrin (ICER ~ 17.3 mil Rls/consq) has shown a substantial decrease.
The results confirm that adding-on new AEDs to conventional regimens in controlling intractable seizures in children is cost-effective comparing to regimens composed entirely of conventional AEDs. However choosing certain AEDs added to the conventional regimen especially in long term requires extra consideration. Given the general advantages of monotherapy against polytherapy, physicians’ preference could be driven towards monotherapy by cost-effective regimens including newer AEDs such as Oxcarbazepine, Lamotrigine and Topiramate.
Since the value that Iranian society recognize for health outcomes is unknown, interpreting the results express complicacy . WHO guidelines recommend comparing the cost-effective ratio (CER) with the GDP per capita of the country . The GDP per capita of Iran reported by the International monetary fund (2010) has been US$ 4400  (~ 44 mil Rls). It should be noted that changes in any factor that modify the calculated costs such as exchange rates, prices and etc. can result in a different cost-effectiveness comparison. There lays a vast difference between these amounts and the ICER value of most regimens, allowing the prescription of the newer AEDs in large numbers. In spite of this, by considering the six months of retention as the desirable consequence, the ICER values of Oxcarbazepine at three price levels and Topiramate at the maximum price exceed the GDP per capita levels requiring more observation on their prescription. This is due to noticeable decrease in the efficacy of regimen.
If a specific regimen is causative of unacceptable side effects or is not efficient, the patient would have been quickly switched to an alternative regimen. Therefore retention rates of different regimens are appropriate indices for effectiveness. In addition actual clinical data used in this study instead of receiving abstract information by clinicians, improves realization of the results. While the study has much strength, cost and medical databanks not being available accounts for limitations through the study.
Collecting clinical data from a referral but single center can be responsible for undesirable bias in the results. Indirect costs such as costs pertaining to side effects and clinical visits were not included in this economic evaluation and different types of epilepsy were not separated due to the low number of patients.
Our results are quite different from Frew’s study that has demonstrated the newer and older antiepileptic drugs different in cost terms while equal in efficacy term . This conflict arises from the different target group. Similarly, Knoester’s and Connek’s studies confirmed the use of older AEDs for patients newly diagnosed epilepsy while not included refractory patients [2, 17]. Some studies such as Boon et al. have shown the favorableness of surgery in refractory patients compared with conservative treatment . In general due to methodological issues comparing different studies is not always possible  and using standardized approach is suggested for further researches.
Adding-on new antiepileptics to conventional regimens is cost-effective and justified considering the GDP per capita. Among the new adding-on AEDs prescribed in Iran, Lamotrigine shows the best results in terms of cost-effectiveness in treating children with intractable seizures. As the same, Oxcarbazepine and Topiramate fall under the GDP per capita level, while Vigabatrin stands close to the standard. However, other adding-on medications; Gabapentin, Levetiracetam and Zonisamide; in treating the target population appears not to be cost-effective due to less effectiveness compared with older AEDs.
This study was the outcome of PharmD student’s thesis and was supported by student thesis grant from Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
- Fisher RS, Emde Boas WV, Blume W, Elger C, Genton P, Lee P, Engel J: Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the international league against epilepsy (ILAE) and the international bureau for epilepsy (IBE). Epilepsia. 2005, 46 (4): 470-472. 10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Connock M, Frew E, Evans B, Bryan S, Cummins C, Fry-Smith A, Li Wan Po A, Sandercock J: The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newer drugs for children with epilepsy, a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. 2006, 10: 7-Google Scholar
- Hawkins N, Epstein D, Drummond M, Wilby J, Kainth A, Chadwick D, Sculpher M: Assessing the cost-effectiveness of new pharmaceuticals in epilepsy in adults: the results of a probabilistic decision model. Med Decis Making. 2005, 25: 493-510. 10.1177/0272989X05280559.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malphrus AD, Wilfong AA: Use of the newer antiepileptic drugs in pediatric epilepsies. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2007, 9: 256-267. 10.1007/s11940-007-0012-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nikfar S, Kebriaeezadeh A, Majdzadeh R, Abdollahi M: Monitoring of National Drug Policy (NDP) and its standardized indicators; conformity to decisions of the national drug selecting committee in Iran. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2005, 10 (5(1)): 5-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abdollahiasl A, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M: Pharmaceutical market and health system in the middle eastern and central asian countries: time for innovations and changes in policies and actions. Arch Med Sci. 2011, 7 (3): 365-367.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elger CE, Schmidt D: Modern management of epilepsy: a practical approach. Epilepsy Behav. 2008, 12: 501-539. 10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.01.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asconape JJ: The selection of antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of epilepsy in children and adults. Neurol Clin. 2010, 28: 843-852. 10.1016/j.ncl.2010.03.026.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nikfar S, Khatibi M, Abdollahiasl A, Abdollahi M: Cost and utilization study of antidotes: an Iranian experience. Int J Pharmacol. 2011, 7 (1): 46-49.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferraro TN, Buono RJ: The relationship between the pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs and human gene variation: an overview. Epilepsy Behav. 2005, 7: 18-36.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zamani G: Treatment plan for intractable seizures. Iran J Pediatr. 2003, 13 (1): 83-89.Google Scholar
- Kochhar P, Suvarna V, Duttagupta S, Sarkar S: Cost-effectiveness study comparing cefoperazone-sulbactam to a three-drug combination for treating intraabdominal infections in an Indian health-care setting. Value Health. 2008, 11 (Suppl 1): S33-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ament A, Baltussen R: The interpretation of results of economic evaluation: explicating the value of health. Heal Econ. 1997, 6: 625-635. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1050(199711)6:6<625::AID-HEC309>3.0.CO;2-O.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization: CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective (WHO-CHOICE). Available at October 2010,http://www.who.int/choice/costs/CER_levels/en/,Google Scholar
- International Monetary Fund:Currency units per SDR. Available at October 2010,http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo,
- Frew EJ, Sandercock J, Whitehouse WP, Bryan S: The cost-effectiveness of newer drugs as add-on therapy for children with focal epilepsies. Seizure. 2007, 16: 99-112. 10.1016/j.seizure.2006.10.017.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knoester PD, Deckers CLP, Termeer EH, Boendermaker AJ, Kotsopoulos IA, de Krom MC, Keyser T, Renier WO, Hekster YA, Severens HL: A cost-effectiveness decision model for antiepileptic drug treatment in newly diagnosed epilepsy patients. Value Health. 2007, 10 (3): 173-182. 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2007.00167.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boon P, D’Have D, Van Walleghem P, Michielsen G, Vonck K, Caemaert J, De Reuck J: Direct medical costs of refractory epilepsy incurred by three different treatment modalities; a prospective assessment. Epilepsia. 2002, 43 (1): 96-102. 10.1046/j.1528-1157.2002.40100.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beghi E, Atzeni L, Garattini L: Economic analysis of newer antiepileptic drugs. CNS Drugs. 2008, 22 (10): 861-875. 10.2165/00023210-200822100-00006.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.